Lin Yutang's Chinese-English Dictionary
of Modern Usage
(Online Version)

使用凡例 - User's Guide

  1. 《林語堂當代漢英詞典》網絡版基本上以香港中文大學於 一九七二年印行的第一版(以下稱“原版”)為製作藍本。

    The production of the Web edition of Lin Yutang's Chinese-English Dictionary of Modern Usage is based on the first edition of the work (hereafter called "the original edition") published in 1972 by the Chinese University Press.

  2. 本詞典共收“首字”(head character) 8,169 個,語法範疇及有關用例 (grammatical categories) 44,407 則,漢語詞目 (words)或片語 (phrases) 40,379 條。

    The dictionary comprises a total of 8,169 head characters, together with 44,407 explanatory entries of grammatical usage and 40,379 entries of Chinese words or phrases.

  3. 為免引起內碼規格上的混亂,本詞典網絡版暫時不設造字檔,如遇未編入「大五碼」之漢字,悉數以“□”號代替之,以待日後處理。

    To avoid further confusion in Chinese encoding, the dictionary for the time being does not consider the self-definition of rare Chinese characters. Characters not included in the Big5 encoding scheme are represented with a "□" sign so that some systematic action can be taken in the future.

  4. 原版採用的“上下形檢字法”乃林語堂所創。這一種檢字法自面世以來,一直未能普及。詞典的網絡版由於有了各種強大的電子檢索及瀏覽功能的支援,“上下形檢字法”作為“檢字”方法而言,已無堅持的必要。

    The "Instant Index System" as adopted in the original edition was an invention by Lin Yutang with the intention of providing a simple and unambiguous rule to call up any given Chinese character. Now in this web edition, with various powerful search and browse mechanisms provided, we see no strong reason for retaining the "Instant Index System" as one of the search options. We have so decided especially since this index system has not been widely used since its inception.

  5. 詞典數據庫的使用,主要可分別為 "檢索模式" (於頂欄鍵入搜索詞項) 和 "瀏覽模式" (用左欄列出的各種索引瀏覽) 兩種。

    The web edition of the dictionary database can either be queried in "search mode" (by entering search arguments in the top bar) or it can be accessed in "browse mode" (by navigating through the indices listed in the frame on the left).

  6. 網絡版的檢索功能又可分為“首字檢索”(head character search)和“全文檢索”(full text search)二者。使用者可於檢索視窗中按 radio button 選擇 。按鍵選擇時,有關的檢索條件將自動調整。

    When using "search mode", the user can query the dictionary either with "head character search" (首字檢索) or with "full text search" (全文檢索), switchable through radio buttons located on the top bar. Upon choosing one of these two search options, all other related search conditions (Boolean, case, string, order etc.) will be self-adjusted.

  7. “首字檢索”主要以“首字”為對象檢閱該字於詞典中的整筆記錄。每一“首字”下登錄的信息主要有原版頁碼/序 號、普通話讀音、部居、語法範疇及使用舉例、構詞等。 此外,本網絡版更以 Javascript 為每一首字建立多種聯 繫,使用者只需以滑鼠按相關的鍵,即可取得該字於本網 站或於海外其他網頁的相關信息(如本網站的“粵音韻譜”,台灣教育部的“國語詞典”、美國的 Unicode 和“中文字譜”等)。

    The "head character search" aims at locating the complete entry(ies) of one or more particular "head character(s)". Together with each head character matched, related information such as original pagination/index code, Putonghua pronunciation, radical belongings, grammatical usage (with examples), words or phrasal constructions etc. will be displayed. Further more, the web edition uses javascripts to generate character-specific hyperlinks pointing to the very same character entries of other lexical web services around the globe. Sites hooked up in this manner include "The Cantonese Syllabaries" (粵音韻譜) of our own site, the Guoyu Cidian (國語詞典) of the Ministry of Education of Taiwan, "Unicode Consortium" and the "Chinese Character Genealogy" (中文字譜) of the US etc.

  8. 在“首字檢索”模式下,每一“首字”右面的方格中均附上兩組與該字有關的序碼,以資識別。 上面顏色較深的是該“首字”於原版中出現時的頁數、欄位 和行數(可簡稱為“頁欄行”碼),下面顏色較淺的是按“上下形檢字法”編列的字碼(可稱為“上下形”碼)。列出的原因有三方面:a) 使網絡版和原版保持聯繫,讓藏有原版的讀者便於核對;b) 交代詞典內文中出現的參照信息 (cross references);和 c) 為未來其他電算工作 構成有利條件(如“缺字”(missing characters)的追蹤)。

    While under the "head character search" mode, each matched head character will be identified by two sets of numberings in the box next to it. The number at the top (darker in colour) refers to the page number of the original edition, together with the column notation and the line number for the first line of the character entry. The number at the bottom (dimmer in colour) refers to the "Instant Index Code" of the matched character(s). There are three reasons why these two numberings are included: a) Correlation of the web edition with the original edition, which allows users in possession of the original edition to check search results. b) Provide hints for cross-references indicated throughout the dictionary text. c) Provide favourable conditions for future computational actions, such as back-tracking of missing (non Big5) characters etc.

  9. “全文檢索”可對詞典作各種方式的檢索。檢索詞可用中文、英文,或甚至中英並用。系統支援的檢索條件包括基 本邏輯運符 (Boolean)、大小楷辨別 (case)、字串全部 或部分選擇 (whole word/ substring)、順序或逆序檢索 (sequential or reverse) 等。

    The "full text search" option allows the user to perform various kinds of query. Search arguments can be inputted either in Chinese or in English, or even mixed. Search options supported by our full text search engine are: basic Boolean operations, case observation or ignoration, choice between whole- and sub-string search, and choice between sequential order (順序) or reverse order (逆序) matching etc.

    用例 Search examples:
    三 四 (Boolean AND)
    澈 徹 (Boolean OR)
    man woman (Boolean AND)
    law 人 (Boolean AND)
    天地 (Sequential order 順序) (Reversed order 逆序)

  10. 所有檢索於顯示結果時,每一檢獲條目左側均列出有關“首字”,用者按滑鼠即可聯繫至該首字的內容。此外,每一首字之下方均附以圖樣,內含三個符號,分別代表順序、全文和逆序三種檢索方式。 用者以滑鼠指向有關符號按鍵,即可對該首字作相應之檢索行動。

    In all queries, matched output items are preceded by their corresponding head characters, under which the output items are listed in the dictionary. Users can mouse-click on the head characters to the left of the matched items to link up with the respective head character entry. Underneath a head character, the graphic sign is always included, which consists of three separate mini-icons referring to "sequential order", "full text" and "reverse order" searches respectively. Users can click on either of these icons to perform searches of their choice on the given character.

  11. 瀏覽模式:除了“首字檢索”和“全文檢索”功能外,網絡版亦提供了“漢字部首索引”、“漢語拼音檢索”和“英語索引”等三種瀏覽詞典的重要功能。用者可從網頁左欄按滑鼠選取之。瀏覽模式的建立,使用者在不諳漢字輸入的情況下仍然可以有效地查閱本詞典中的各種信 息。

    Besides "head character" and "full text" searches, the web edition also provides the users with three useful "browse mode" operations: "Chinese Radical Index" (漢字部首索引), "Hanyu Pinyin Index" (漢語拼音索引) and the "English Index" (英語索引). These indices are machine-generated tools designed to allow the users to gain multiple accesses to the dictionary database. Users who have difficulties in inputting Chinese directly will find these indices of great heuristic and practical value.

  12. 網絡版使用的“部首表”按今日常用的《康熙字典》 214 部編成,同一部首下之“首字”再按筆畫多寡另表排列。

    The "Chinese Radical Index" is arranged according to the popular 214-radical scheme as adopted by the Kangxi Zidian (康熙字典). Head characters under the same radical are listed in one of the 214 sub-charts and are arranged according to the number of strokes of the characters.

  13. 原版採用“國語羅馬字”(Guoryuu Romatzyh)為拼音準則 ,網絡版則以電腦程式把詞典全文中的“國語羅馬字”改為今日通行的 “漢語拼音”。然後又以程式分析詞典中所有首字的聲韻,並按聲母韻母之各種可能組合排列成表。而同聲同韻之各首字則再按 "四聲" ( + 輕聲 ) 另表列排。為方便台灣用者,“首字”除標明“漢語拼音”外, 亦附上“注音符號”;語法解釋和構詞項目中的語音資料,則只 以“漢語拼音”標示。

    In the original edition, "Guoryuu Romatzyh" (國語羅馬字) was used as the scheme for romanization. As this scheme is now somewhat obsolete, the web edition uses a PERL script to translate the old scheme into Hanyu Pinyin (漢語拼音). The Pinyin combinations of all Chinese characters are tabulated with initials (聲母) on the X-axis charted against finals (韻母) on the Y-axis. Clicking on any valid XY combination will bring the user to a sub-chart with all head characters with the same XY sound. Characters in each sub-chart are further classified according to the 4+1 tonality (四聲+輕聲) characteristic of Putonghua. For the interest of Taiwan users, Zuyin Fuhao (注音符號) are also included in the main phonetic chart as well as in all phonetic sub-charts. In the search results, Zuyin Fuhao will appear alongside Pinyin in the head character row only; in all subsequent grammatical and verbal-phrasal outputs, Pinyin alone will be provided.

  14. 網絡版裡所有“漢語拼音”信息,均以 Javascript 與美國貝爾實驗室 (Bell Labs)的語音合成程式聯繫,用者按滑鼠即可取得有關的普通話發音。為方便聯繫,網絡版的 “漢語拼音”標音法亦採用貝爾實驗室之標準,即以 "1" 至 "4" 表四聲,以“0 ”表“輕聲”,和以“U”表韻母 "ㄩ"。

    In the web edition of the dictionary, all phonetic notations in Pinyin are linked up to a speech-synthesizing programme developed by the Bell Labs of the US. For the sake of easy linkage, the Pinyin notation used in the web edition conforms to that of the Bell Labs, namely, using "1" to "4" for the four tones, "0" for the unaccented tone (輕聲), and "U" for the "ㄩ" vowel.

  15. 原版的“英語索引”(English Index) 與網絡版的英語索引不同。前者乃人手編纂的結果,列舉的英文單字往往附有構詞上的搭配 (collocation)資料,因此具有高度的語文參考價值。網絡版的英語索引卻是一套由電腦程式自動化產生的“逐字索引”(除指定的常用字外,如 "an", "or", "the", "to"等)。電腦程式索引的最大優點是覆蓋詳盡,但由於只列英文單字,因此不能完全取代原版索引之價值。將來人手較充足時,或會於網頁上增補原版的英語索引。

    The English index included in this web edition is different from that provided in the original edition. While the latter is the result of manual (human) compilation enriched with word collocation (構詞搭配) information, which is of high lexical referential value, the former is but merely a machine-generated word index. On the other side of the coin, however, while the English index of the original edition is far from being complete, the one provided in this web edition has a claim for complete coverage (with the exception of a number of "stop-words" such as "a", "an" "or" and "to" etc.). Given more man-power in the future, we might consider the inclusion of the original English index.

  16. 原版附有“縮略語表”(Abbreviations and Symbols), 以交代詞典中使用的縮略規則。網絡版則把“縮略語表” 細分為“專科術語”(technical terms)、“語言文體術語”(linguistic-stylistic terms) 和“其他”三表, 並且建立了檢索聯繫。用者按滑鼠即可一舉取得所有有關信息,如 詞典中和“佛學”(Budd.)、“數學”(math.)、“中藥” (Chin.Med.) 有關的詞項,又或詞典中有關“梵語”(Sanskr.)、“委婉語”(euphemism) 和“俚俗語”(vulg.) 等語文信息。不過必需聲明,由於原版並未就各 種術語的運用作一覆蓋全文的系統化標示 (tagging),因 此上述借“縮略語表”而建立的術語檢索方法雖有參考價值,但覆蓋並不全面。將來詞典如果要編“第二版”,有 關工作將可臻完善。

    The list of "Abbreviations and Symbols" in the original edition has been restructured in this web edition. Instead of listing the abbreviations and symbols in one plain chart, we have divided the items into three separate tables, labeled "technical terms", "linguistic-stylistic terms" and "others" respectively. All the items listed are search-enabled through hyperlinks. So by clicking on "Buddhism" (Budd.), "mathematics" (math.), "Chinese Medicine" (Chin.Med.), or on "Sanskrit" (Sanskr.), "euphemism" (euph.) or "vulgar" (vulg.) , one can practically speaking sort out all disciplinary or linguistic information on the respective topic with one single but targeted move. But for all these, one thing is to be noted: While this additional search modality based on "abbreviations" has proven to be extremely useful, we must remind our users that a systematic tagging of all lexical items has not been undertaken in the original edition. This amounts to a limitation of the use of the additional search model just being mentioned. In the future, however, when the second edition of the dictionary is to be prepared, much improvement in this regard could be anticipated.

  17. 詞典網絡版的製作涉及許多自動化工序,如音符之改寫、字表和音表之構成、超連結之建立等。這些工序對原件信息的準確性和格式的內部一致性有極高之要求,在在非原版編校時所能全面顧及。 因此,詞典內容雖經詳細校對,但錯誤仍在所難 免。用者如發現任何錯誤,盼能使用勘誤報表向詞典管理小組報告。如有任何其他建議,請以電郵與我 們聯絡: twkwan@cuhk.edu.hk

    The preparation of the web edition involves a lot of automation procedures, such as automatic transcription of phonetic notations, auto-charting, auto-hyperlinking etc. While such procedures on the one hand require a high degree of data accuracy and internal consistency to work, the original edition on the other hand, upon which our work is based, was not meant to fulfill such precision requirements decades ago. For this reason, bugs and errors are to be expected despite careful proof-reading. We are therefore most grateful to our users if they can send us bug reports on whatever errors they might come across. Other opinions and suggestions that might help us improve our service are most welcome.
    Please contact: twkwan@cuhk.edu.hk

回到頁頂 | Top     回到主頁 | Home